When We Met Other Human Species

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  • Published: 10 July 2019
  • We all belong to the only group of hominins on the planet today. But we weren’t always alone. 100,000 years ago, Eurasia was home to other hominin species, some of which we know our ancestors met, and spent some quality time with.

    Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Fabrizio de Rossi from Studio 252mya for their wonderful hominin illustrations. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/

    Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: lavendercottage.info/user/pbsdigitalstudios

    Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible:
    Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, MissyElliottSmith, The Scintillating Spencer, AA, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Charles Kahle, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Alex Yan

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    References: docs.google.com/document/d/1h8iVAIugVPfxOcCZKeZxtZfa6mNP8V7xMhS_vxmDRl0/edit?usp=sharing
  • Science and Technology Science and Technology

Comments • 5 845

  • PBS Eons
    PBS Eons   3 months back

    Some commenters have pointed out that calling Neanderthals and Denisovans “other hominin species” in this episode breaks the rules of the biological species concept (BSC), which says if two things can interbreed, then they’re the same species. Some paleoanthropologists would agree. They consider both Neanderthals and Denisovans to be subspecies of Homo sapiens, rather than separate species. Other experts would say that Neanderthals have a set of features that make them clearly distinguishable from Homo sapiens, putting them outside the range of variation we include in our species. And we hardly know the Denisovans - like we said in the video, they don’t even have a scientific name yet.


    The incredible thing about this is that we can even think about applying the BSC to fossils at all. The BSC is a species concept based on living organisms, and it’s only been within the last two decades or so that we’ve had the ancient DNA and the technology to test hypotheses about interbreeding in extinct groups. And it’s not the only way to define a species, either, so it will likely be a while (if ever) before anthropologists decide whether we’re a different species, subspecies, or population from the Neanderthals and Denisovans.


    (Darcy Shapiro, PhD, script editor)

    • Flightrisk
      Flightrisk  5 hours back

      PBS Eons they need to be looking at the specific blood types. People should consider that we are the product of other types of beings. Rh- folks for example have an extra vertebra as well they have more copper streaming in their blood, making them far more conductive! These things are important to consider when looking at our ancient ancestors or root races. Then we must always remember that the truth is right inside all of us, safely stored in our DNA. Time to start researching inwardly💚💫

    • Rayvn e'Kieron
      Rayvn e'Kieron  17 hours back

      @pauldh62 That's essentially true, as far as I can tell! So resonably, dogs could be considered a subspecies of wolves. But dogs can interbreed with coyotes and jackals as well, which are also considered to be separate species.

    • pauldh62
      pauldh62  19 hours back

      @Warner Losh My limited understanding is that a dog and a wolf are actually one and the same in terms of species. The former, however, has been subject to generations upon generations of selective breeding. The only problem one would have with trying to mate a dog and a wolf out of the laboratory would be preventing the wolf eating the dog -they do.

    • Delphinium Flower
      Delphinium Flower  22 hours back

      @Andrew Howard The key question is, can you breed a Scandinavian with a Pygmy?

    • Doriamo
      Doriamo  1 days back

      There are interspecies hybrids in nature. Look at Cuora seratta for example that comes from two separate turtle species within two separate genera. The hybrids are fertile too!

  • Christian Soriano
    Christian Soriano  40 minutes back

    Sima means top of.. usually a mountain Hill etc... Not a pit

    • cenkiss2331
      cenkiss2331  1 hours back

      We are the neandarthals. They did not get extinct. This nonsense theory called out of africa has no basis. Africa has no civilization , all traces of greatest Human civilizations are around mediterranian sea and fertile crescent. Yet the fools insist on something ridiculous because of politics.

      • Yen Feng
        Yen Feng  1 hours back

        😂😂 1800 years there is but one race the human race so are people who saying there unicorns salvores or whatever.

        • BDFFRNT
          BDFFRNT  3 hours back

          We are not one lone branch, but rather one homogeneous canopy. Love the video, and the green ❤

          • Angel A
            Angel A  5 hours back

            Takeaway: If someone looks like you (I.e. same ethnic group), you are too close in the gene pool- RUN don't walk and find someone else to procreate with😉😁

            • Ana R
              Ana R  6 hours back

              Its not sima de los huesos but cima de los huesos

              • the one momojombo
                the one momojombo  7 hours back

                If human kill another human being just because of their skin colour.. What makes you think a different humanoid species will survive our human cruelty?

                • karim tahamouka
                  karim tahamouka  7 hours back

                  come to the middle east i think you might find lots of Neanderthals here

                  • Matthew Thompson
                    Matthew Thompson  8 hours back

                    Make a video on why scientists always over-prununciate words. Its neanderTHAL not neandertall smh

                    • Shaun Cummings
                      Shaun Cummings  11 hours back

                      I’m telling my church on you

                      • KraggleWulf
                        KraggleWulf  11 hours back

                        Well I know where my sex drive comes from now.

                        • Cal
                          Cal  12 hours back

                          "Neander-tall"

                          • Lindsay Williams
                            Lindsay Williams  13 hours back

                            What about studying the genes/DNA of indigenous people? I feel like that could show a lot of information

                            • victor soto
                              victor soto  14 hours back

                              So, Native Africans, who never migrated and met others, are the only "true" Homo Sapiens. There is more diversity of DNA in Africa than anywhere else in the world...the more diverse, the genetics, the healthier the body.
                              The combination of inbreeding and interbreeding, by western man, has diluted the bloodline of "true" humans.

                              • Jose Rodriguez
                                Jose Rodriguez  15 hours back

                                Is that Mr. Green?

                                • Isa_735
                                  Isa_735  15 hours back

                                  I freaking love this guy

                                  • Nick Sklavos
                                    Nick Sklavos  16 hours back

                                    Very nice and very informative. Thank you very much. Of course there is always the 5% that don’t like to hear scientific facts. What do you do let’s laugh.

                                    • Mister WarBeast
                                      Mister WarBeast  16 hours back

                                      Neanderthals didn't go extinct... we just learned to blend in and not be noticed...

                                      • Marty Jansing
                                        Marty Jansing  17 hours back

                                        homo sapien archaic, homo sapien neanderthals. homo sapien sapien....populations have variations

                                        • Rebekah kissel
                                          Rebekah kissel  18 hours back

                                          Humans just understood how to make fire

                                          • flint the kaka harris
                                            flint the kaka harris  18 hours back

                                            Proof we have nothing in common with Africans.

                                            • beth, i guess
                                              beth, i guess  22 hours back

                                              i love learning about this stuff. it makes me sad knowing that no other hominids are alive anymore... humans are so lonely. id love to have a close relative species :-( i wish i could go back in time to meet some neanderthals or denisovans

                                              • jayrozzle
                                                jayrozzle  22 hours back

                                                Even though I already know none of this is 100% accurate; are you telling the people that descendants from Africa don't have any DNA coming from Neanderthals 😬🤫.. Maybe Darwin was right about evolution.. Just not talking about Africa or its descendants.. Neanderthals are cavemen. Very similar to primates. T

                                                • Mr Pickles
                                                  Mr Pickles  23 hours back

                                                  1:06 Explains how we have The Hipster breed of hominin today.

                                                  • Co Si
                                                    Co Si  24 hours back

                                                    There are not any more because of interbreeding.

                                                    • JB
                                                      JB  1 days back

                                                      If DNA attributes are derived from longevity of one's life (more intercourse) spreading the DNA. Then are modern humans destined to fail if we only pass along DNA through what monetary means we derive in life presently. In short... if a bunch of rich idiots have greater means in life than genius poor population are we destined for failure as a species?

                                                      • Marlon Hernandez
                                                        Marlon Hernandez  1 days back

                                                        So we’re all mutants X

                                                        • IAMDIMITRI
                                                          IAMDIMITRI  1 days back

                                                          We absorbed them

                                                          • Erin Young
                                                            Erin Young  1 days back

                                                            Why doesn't Steve have a last name?

                                                            • Tony Scar
                                                              Tony Scar  1 days back

                                                              I think pbs eons is forgetting about the ultimate hide and seek champion. Bigfoot.

                                                              • Jarred Hatfield
                                                                Jarred Hatfield  2 hours back

                                                                They say bigfoot was most likely a gigantophitecus

                                                            • Doriamo
                                                              Doriamo  1 days back

                                                              There are interspecies hybrids in nature. Look at Cuora seratta for example that comes from two separate turtle species within two separate genera. The hybrids are fertile too!

                                                              • Jeremy X
                                                                Jeremy X  1 days back

                                                                You come frome easu

                                                                • Al King
                                                                  Al King  1 days back

                                                                  They all had man buns back then?

                                                                  • Nicolas Licastro
                                                                    Nicolas Licastro  1 days back

                                                                    -That looks like a person, i will reproduce with it

                                                                    • silver watcher
                                                                      silver watcher  1 days back

                                                                      I may have done a DNA thingy and it said I have 5% Neanderthals and I'm 6"2 and come from 7ft grandparents and what not so this midget claim maybe there were giant Neanderthals we just haven't found them. Cause other wise explain a giant with midget Neanderthals 5% DNA family bloodline.

                                                                      • Ma n
                                                                        Ma n  1 days back

                                                                        We were the rat and rabits. heheheh We breed like rabits, f0ked everyone even other humans like Neanderthal. We spread to every part of the earth like rats.

                                                                        • AlexanderGreat15
                                                                          AlexanderGreat15  1 days back

                                                                          AND BIG BRAINS!!

                                                                          • Natural Heel
                                                                            Natural Heel  2 days back

                                                                            PBS always keeps it coming

                                                                            • Brandyce Wonderland
                                                                              Brandyce Wonderland  2 days back

                                                                              The only time it was ok to have sex with other species.

                                                                              • nunya biznez
                                                                                nunya biznez  2 days back

                                                                                I would like to point out that Neanderthals and certain other hominins probably did not go extinct.  Their much smaller populations merely got absorbed into the larger Homo sapiens population.  This fits in with the small bits and pieces of their DNA found in our genome.  And how do we know they are in fact hominin DNA sequences in our genome?  Perhaps its our DNA sequences that scientists found in their genome.   I personally think too many scientists jump to conclusions without thinking logically through the evidence.  How do we really know which group gave their DNA to the other.  Most likely there was a lot more DNA swapping going on throughout our prehistory that we do not know about.

                                                                                • Logan Hoomana
                                                                                  Logan Hoomana  2 days back

                                                                                  Imagine how roasted an old school human would get for banging a Neanderthal. I cant even bang 7 without getting shot from my friends

                                                                                  • J Diddle
                                                                                    J Diddle  2 days back

                                                                                    Not at all on topic but someone needs to form an a cappella group called The Harmonins immediately!

                                                                                    • EZZY GREZZY
                                                                                      EZZY GREZZY  2 days back

                                                                                      Gtf you ppl speculate everything about history

                                                                                      • Nacho Gallagher
                                                                                        Nacho Gallagher  2 days back

                                                                                        A fourth subspecies has been recently identified.

                                                                                        • Jacinth Gudetti
                                                                                          Jacinth Gudetti  2 days back

                                                                                          So basically... dwarven people = neanderthal

                                                                                          • Neil Dennis
                                                                                            Neil Dennis  2 days back

                                                                                            Shouldn’t this title end with, “...We Exterminated Them.”