When We Met Other Human Species

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  • Published: 10 July 2019
  • We all belong to the only group of hominins on the planet today. But we weren’t always alone. 100,000 years ago, Eurasia was home to other hominin species, some of which we know our ancestors met, and spent some quality time with.

    Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Fabrizio de Rossi from Studio 252mya for their wonderful hominin illustrations. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/

    Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: lavendercottage.info/user/pbsdigitalstudios

    Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible:
    Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, MissyElliottSmith, The Scintillating Spencer, AA, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Charles Kahle, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Alex Yan

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    References: docs.google.com/document/d/1h8iVAIugVPfxOcCZKeZxtZfa6mNP8V7xMhS_vxmDRl0/edit?usp=sharing
  • Science and Technology Science and Technology

Comments • 5 916

  • PBS Eons
    PBS Eons   3 months back

    Some commenters have pointed out that calling Neanderthals and Denisovans “other hominin species” in this episode breaks the rules of the biological species concept (BSC), which says if two things can interbreed, then they’re the same species. Some paleoanthropologists would agree. They consider both Neanderthals and Denisovans to be subspecies of Homo sapiens, rather than separate species. Other experts would say that Neanderthals have a set of features that make them clearly distinguishable from Homo sapiens, putting them outside the range of variation we include in our species. And we hardly know the Denisovans - like we said in the video, they don’t even have a scientific name yet.


    The incredible thing about this is that we can even think about applying the BSC to fossils at all. The BSC is a species concept based on living organisms, and it’s only been within the last two decades or so that we’ve had the ancient DNA and the technology to test hypotheses about interbreeding in extinct groups. And it’s not the only way to define a species, either, so it will likely be a while (if ever) before anthropologists decide whether we’re a different species, subspecies, or population from the Neanderthals and Denisovans.


    (Darcy Shapiro, PhD, script editor)

    • Bill Keck
      Bill Keck  9 hours back

      Sometimes I wonder. If a paleontologist found fossils in different parts of the world would they classify Pygmies (about 4 ft tall( as the same species as Zulus (about 7 ft tall.) What about Bushmen of the Kalahari, or Asians, say Japanese. or Australian Aborigines. Or Mayans? Would these all be classified as the same "species"? Again, remember, I talking about dead fossils.
      I recently saw an Tyrannosaur exhibit at the American Museum of Natural, where they've recently identified that small T-Rex-like "species" are actually the same species of Tyrannosaurus Rex, but at different ages: baby, adolescent, young adult, adult.

    • Alex2149
      Alex2149  10 hours back

      PBS Eons γες

    • pauldh62
      pauldh62  2 days back

      @Flightrisk When we have thoroughly aired this one 50 to 100 years from now I reckon there will be several more brothers or sister human species discovered, all assimilated with Sapiens Sapiens.

    • Flightrisk
      Flightrisk  3 days back

      PBS Eons they need to be looking at the specific blood types. People should consider that we are the product of other types of beings. Rh- folks for example have an extra vertebra as well they have more copper streaming in their blood, making them far more conductive! These things are important to consider when looking at our ancient ancestors or root races. Then we must always remember that the truth is right inside all of us, safely stored in our DNA. Time to start researching inwardly💚💫

    • Rayvn e'Kieron
      Rayvn e'Kieron  3 days back

      @pauldh62 That's essentially true, as far as I can tell! So resonably, dogs could be considered a subspecies of wolves. But dogs can interbreed with coyotes and jackals as well, which are also considered to be separate species.

  • Axios .king
    Axios .king  2 hours back

    Everyone but Africans

    • richtaco
      richtaco  3 hours back

      People just believe whatever scientists say. This is hilarious

      • Sam D
        Sam D  3 hours back

        Maybe they didn't die out, maybe we all just made love and there were more homo sapiens than Neanderthals or Denisovans so more of our DNA ended up in the batter.

        • Stinky Hernandez
          Stinky Hernandez  7 hours back

          I should be writing a science term paper right now but im watching this

          • peerless sector
            peerless sector  7 hours back

            I swear he is mispronouncing "Neanderthal"

            • HeavensGremlin
              HeavensGremlin  8 hours back

              It's the guy that voices Kermit the Frog......

              • Dalton Ivey
                Dalton Ivey  8 hours back

                They were slaves and eventually worked to death.

                • Armin X
                  Armin X  9 hours back

                  Sapiens - Human
                  Florensis - Hobbits
                  Neanderthals - basically dwarfs

                  So basically some of the most prominent species from the Fantasy genre are based on ancient relatives?

                  • WeGotSwag
                    WeGotSwag  9 hours back

                    Isn’t it funny how every recreation of the new species look Caucasian

                    • Eshe’s_World
                      Eshe’s_World  9 hours back

                      The missing link🤔

                      • Thumbed Down And Left
                        Thumbed Down And Left  16 hours back

                        So, basically... There actually IS some merit to the concept of racism.

                        • Ashadieeyah Sultana
                          Ashadieeyah Sultana  19 hours back

                          Personally I think what have Homo sapiens Sapiens (modern humans) an advantage is our ability to adapt rapidly. Wether that’s through more advanced technology or through interbreeding with species adapted to those locations

                          • Robert Ford
                            Robert Ford  20 hours back

                            Love this video

                            • rebeccamaria63
                              rebeccamaria63  21 hours back

                              Basically, they were ALL HUMANS of SOME kind. Why be so species-ist. They were all conscious hominids. We were just the trickiest, luckiest and probably the most aggressive, lets face it.

                              • Duck Moore
                                Duck Moore  21 hours back

                                So... Does this mean I’m a “mutt”?

                                • Duck Moore
                                  Duck Moore  21 hours back

                                  So WHO do we blame for the appendix?

                                  • Doctor Medkit
                                    Doctor Medkit  1 days back

                                    It bugs me so much that he keeps saying Neandertalls

                                    • Mojo Dope
                                      Mojo Dope  1 days back

                                      2:30 translates at the top of the bones not the pit of the bones which refers to down.

                                      • Alejo petinato
                                        Alejo petinato  1 days back

                                        hi man awesome video! greatings from argentina! a little CORRECTION: sima de los huesos is not pit of bones, "sima" its the top o a mount or mountain. mi respects! keep doing ur viedos are great!

                                        • christian cravens
                                          christian cravens  1 days back

                                          Holds true today as yesterday...dudes will get freaky with pretty much anything

                                          • Sacha David
                                            Sacha David  1 days back

                                            The lesson of the story is to breed with strangers as much as possible!

                                            • T. Ferttita is a Commie bootlicker

                                              He didnt mention homo naledi, homo florensis, and possibly even homo erectus were alive at the same time as well.

                                              • benevolent
                                                benevolent  1 days back

                                                4:45 nip slip

                                                • Victor Prokop
                                                  Victor Prokop  2 days back

                                                  Is the "Sexy Neanderthal Theory" plausable?

                                                  • εтɦαɳ uwu
                                                    εтɦαɳ uwu  2 days back

                                                    Wow so my ancestors are hoes.

                                                    • Brick Animations
                                                      Brick Animations  2 days back

                                                      It’s sad that we are the only human species left but imagine the racism if all the species were still here

                                                      • Rizal Punio
                                                        Rizal Punio  2 days back

                                                        More discrimination I think

                                                        • Lirrulewon
                                                          Lirrulewon  2 days back

                                                          So at the end of the day we are all Africans hmmmm

                                                          some mixed some not.

                                                          • Aster B
                                                            Aster B  2 days back

                                                            hMmMmM this could be an anime

                                                            • THAT eLmo GUY
                                                              THAT eLmo GUY  2 days back

                                                              NeanderTALLS

                                                              • Sergio Alcantara
                                                                Sergio Alcantara  3 days back

                                                                According to my dna test I have Neanderthal dna in me. That might be the cause of my stupidity at times. 😂

                                                                • Anthony R.
                                                                  Anthony R.  3 days back

                                                                  What are names of the background tones? Or what genre is that I feel like some of them get me in a creative mood lol

                                                                  • Christian Soriano
                                                                    Christian Soriano  3 days back

                                                                    Sima means top of.. usually a mountain Hill etc... Not a pit

                                                                    • cenkiss2331
                                                                      cenkiss2331  3 days back

                                                                      We are the neandarthals. They did not get extinct. This nonsense theory called out of africa has no basis. Africa has no civilization , all traces of greatest Human civilizations are around mediterranian sea and fertile crescent. Yet the fools insist on something ridiculous because of politics.

                                                                      • Yen Feng
                                                                        Yen Feng  3 days back

                                                                        😂😂 1800 years there is but one race the human race so are people who saying there unicorns salvores or whatever.

                                                                        • BDFFRNT
                                                                          BDFFRNT  3 days back

                                                                          We are not one lone branch, but rather one homogeneous canopy. Love the video, and the green ❤

                                                                          • Angel A
                                                                            Angel A  3 days back

                                                                            Takeaway: If someone looks like you (I.e. same ethnic group), you are too close in the gene pool- RUN don't walk and find someone else to procreate with😉😁

                                                                            • Ana R
                                                                              Ana R  3 days back

                                                                              Its not sima de los huesos but cima de los huesos

                                                                              • the one momojombo
                                                                                the one momojombo  3 days back

                                                                                If human kill another human being just because of their skin colour.. What makes you think a different humanoid species will survive our human cruelty?

                                                                                • karim tahamouka
                                                                                  karim tahamouka  3 days back

                                                                                  come to the middle east i think you might find lots of Neanderthals here

                                                                                  • Matthew Thompson
                                                                                    Matthew Thompson  3 days back

                                                                                    Make a video on why scientists always over-prununciate words. Its neanderTHAL not neandertall smh

                                                                                    • Shaun Cummings
                                                                                      Shaun Cummings  3 days back

                                                                                      I’m telling my church on you

                                                                                      • KraggleWulf
                                                                                        KraggleWulf  3 days back

                                                                                        Well I know where my sex drive comes from now.

                                                                                        • Cal
                                                                                          Cal  3 days back

                                                                                          "Neander-tall"

                                                                                          • Lindsay Williams
                                                                                            Lindsay Williams  3 days back

                                                                                            What about studying the genes/DNA of indigenous people? I feel like that could show a lot of information

                                                                                            • Knaughty F
                                                                                              Knaughty F  20 hours back

                                                                                              Indigenous is a very vague term in human evolution. Even the oldest fossil sample found in North America (Arlington springs man/woman/whatever) is just a boring homo sapien.

                                                                                          • victor soto
                                                                                            victor soto  3 days back

                                                                                            So, Native Africans, who never migrated and met others, are the only "true" Homo Sapiens. There is more diversity of DNA in Africa than anywhere else in the world...the more diverse, the genetics, the healthier the body.
                                                                                            The combination of inbreeding and interbreeding, by western man, has diluted the bloodline of "true" humans.